Environmental Science & Technology 2020

Prenatal Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants, Mediating Molecular Mechanisms, and Shifts in Birthweight.

Laine JE, Bodinier B, Robinson O, Plusquin M, Scalbert A, Keski-Rahkonen P, Robinot N, Vermeulen R, Pizzi C, Asta F, Nawrot T, Gulliver J, Chatzi L, Kogevinas M, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M, Chadeau-Hyam M, Vineis P
- sub: - "2.5" - "10" - "2" - "2.5" - "2.5" - "10" - "2" - "2.5" - "10" - "2" i: - sub: - x content: - Mechanisms underlying adverse birth and later in life health effects from exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period have not been not fully elucidated, especially in the context of mixtures. We assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to mixtures of air pollutants of particulate matter (PM), PM - ", PM" - ", nitrogen oxides, NO" - ", NO" - ", ultrafine particles (UFP), and oxidative potential (OP) of PM" - " on infant birthweight in four European birth cohorts and the mechanistic underpinnings through cross-omics of metabolites and inflammatory proteins. The association between mixtures of air pollutants and birthweight z-scores (standardized for gestational age) was assessed for three different mixture models, using Bayesian machine kernel regression (BKMR). We determined the direct effect for PM" - ", PM" - ", NO" - ", and mediation by cross-omic signatures (identified using sparse partial least-squares regression) using causal mediation BKMR models. There was a negative association with birthweight z-scores and exposure to mixtures of air pollutants, where up to -0.21 or approximately a 96 g decrease in birthweight, comparing the 75th percentile to the median level of exposure to the air pollutant mixture could occur. Shifts in birthweight z-scores from prenatal exposure to PM" - ", PM" - ", and NO" - " were mediated by molecular mechanisms, represented by cross-omics scores. Interleukin-17 and epidermal growth factor were identified as important inflammatory responses underlyingair pollution-associated shifts in birthweight. Our results signify that by identifying mechanisms through which mixtures of air pollutants operate, the causality of air pollution-associated shifts in birthweight is better supported, substantiating the need for reducing exposure in vulnerable populations."