Lancet Infectious Diseases 2022

Ivermectin and albendazole coadministration: opportunities for strongyloidiasis control.

Gandasegui J, Onwuchekwa C, Krolewiecki AJ, Doyle SR, Pullan RL, Enbiale W, Kepha S, Hatherell HA, van Lieshout L, Cambra-Pellejà M, Escola V, Muñoz J
In 2020, WHO recognised the importance of strongyloidiasis alongside soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in their 2021-30 roadmap, which aspires to target Strongyloides stercoralis with preventive chemotherapy by use of ivermectin. Combination treatment with both albendazole, the primary drug used to treat STH, and ivermectin, would improve the efficiency of mass drug administration targeting both STH and S stercoralis. In this Personal View, we discuss the challenges and opportunities towards the development of an efficient control programme for strongyloidiasis, particularly if it is to run concurrently with STH control. We argue the need to define the prevalence threshold to implement preventive chemotherapy for S stercoralis, the target populations and optimal dosing schedules, and discuss the added benefits of a fixed-dose coformulation of ivermectin and albendazole. Implementation of an efficient control programme will require improvements to current diagnostics, and validation of new diagnostics, to target and monitor S stercoralis infections, and consideration of the challenges of multispecies diagnostics for S stercoralis and STH control. Finally, the evolution of ivermectin resistance represents a credible risk to control S stercoralis; we argue that genome-wide approaches, together with improved genome resources, are needed to characterise and prevent the emergence of resistance. Overcoming these challenges will help to reduce strongyloidiasis burden and enhance the feasibility of controlling it worldwide.Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.