Diagnostics 2022; 13(1)

Determination of Anti-Phospholipase A2 and Anti-Thrombospondin Type 1 Domain-Containing Protein 7A in Latin Patients with Membranous Nephropathy.

Battaini LC, Ranzani OT, Marçal LJ, Antonangelo L, Jorge LB, Bitencourt CD, Woronik V, Malheiros DMA, Yu L
Primary membranous nephropathy (MN) is caused by antibodies against podocyte antigens, especially the type M receptor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain containing 7 A (THSD7A). This study's aim was the determination of anti-PLA2R, anti-THSD7A serum antibodies, and anti-PLA2R renal tissue staining prevalence in a Latin population with MN, as well as evaluating their role as biomarkers for disease activity. The performance of the two anti-PLA2R serum diagnostic methods-ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence (IFI)-was evaluated for the diagnosis of MN. Fifty-nine patients, including 29 with MN, 18 with lupus membranous nephropathy (LMN) and 12 with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), were evaluated for serum antibodies. Renal biopsies were also evaluated for the presence of anti-PLA2R staining. Twenty-one patients with MN were followed for 1 year. Patients with LMN and FSGS were negative for both antibodies. All 29 MN patients were negative for anti-THSD7A; 16 MN patients were positive for anti-PLA2R by ELISA and/or IFI, and 3 MN patients were positive for anti-PLA2R only by IFI. Thus, the anti-PLA2R ELISA test demonstrated 45% sensitivity and 97% specificity, while the IFI test showed, respectively, 55% and 100% in our MN patients. Among the 28 MN renal biopsies, 20 presented anti-PLA2R positive staining, corresponding to a 72% sensitivity. Positive correlations were observed between the anti-PLA2R ELISA titer and proteinuria. In conclusion, determination of anti-PLA2R antibodies in the MN Latin population showed similar rates to those reported for other populations. The anti-PLA2R serum levels correlated with MN disease activity.