Nutrients 2021; 13(2): 327 -

The Use of Lower or Higher Than Recommended Doses of Folic Acid Supplements during Pregnancy Is Associated with Child Attentional Dysfunction at 4-5 Years of Age in the INMA Project.

Compañ Gabucio LM, Garcia de la Hera M, Torres Collado L, Fernández-Somoano A, Tardón A, Guxens M, Vrijheid M, Rebagliato M, Murcia M, Ibarluzea J, Martí I, Vioque J
We assessed the association between the use of lower- and higher-than-recommended doses of folic acid supplements (FAs) during pregnancy and attentional function in boys and girls at age of 4-5. We analyzed data from 1329 mother-child pairs from the mother-child cohort INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project (INMA) study. Information on FAs use during pregnancy was collected in personal interviews at weeks 12 and 30, and categorized in <400, 400-999 (recommended dose), and ≥1000 μg/day. Child attentional function was assessed by Conners' Kiddie Continuous Performance Test. Multivariable regression analyses were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and beta coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared to recommended FAs doses, the periconceptional use of <400 and ≥1000 μg/day was associated with higher risk of omission errors-IRR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.29) and IRR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.33), respectively. The use of FAs < 400 μg/day and ≥1000 μg/day was significantly associated with deficits of attentional function only in boys. FAs use < 400 μg/day was associated with higher omission errors with IRR = 1.22 and increased hit reaction time (HRT) β = 34.36, and FAs use ≥ 1000 μg/day was associated with increased HRT β = 33.18 and HRT standard error β = 3.31. The periconceptional use of FAs below or above the recommended doses is associated with deficits of attentional function in children at age of 4-5, particularly in boys.