Nutrients 2020; 13(1)

Low Dietary Magnesium and Overweight/Obesity in a Mediterranean Population: A Detrimental Synergy for the Development of Hypertension. The SUN Project.

Dominguez LJ, Gea A, Ruiz-Estigarribia L, Sayón-Orea C, Fresán U, Barbagallo M, Ruiz-Canela M, Martínez-González MA
Hypertension is the strongest independent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the association of magnesium intake with incident hypertension in a Mediterranean population, and the potential modification of this association by body mass index BMI. We assessed 14,057 participants of the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) prospective cohort (67.0% women) initially free of hypertension. At baseline, a validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire was administered. We used Cox models adjusted for multiple socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors, and prevalent conditions present at baseline. Among a mean 9.6 years of follow-up we observed 1406 incident cases of medically diagnosed hypertension. An inverse association in multivariable-adjusted models was observed for progressively higher magnesium intake up to 500 mg/d vs. intake < 200 mg/d, which was greater among those with a BMI > 27 kg/m2. Lean participants with magnesium intake < 200 mg/d vs. >200 mg/d also had a higher risk of incident hypertension. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet did not modify these associations. In conclusion, dietary magnesium intake < 200 mg/d was independently associated with a higher risk of developing hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort, stronger for overweight/obese participants. Our results emphasize the importance of encouraging the consumption of magnesium-rich foods (vegetables, nuts, whole cereals, legumes) in order to prevent hypertension.