Leishmania infantum is the parasite responsible for the disease in humans known as zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). Dogs are considered the main domestic reservoir of ZVL and sand flies are the proven vectors. The use of systemic insecticides in dogs has been studied as an alternative strategy to control ZVL in endemic areas. One systemic insecticide in dogs, fluralaner, has a proven anti-sand fly effect in membrane-fed studies. However, the efficacy and duration on sand flies directly feeding from dogs treated with fluralaner remains unknown.
"Direct feeding bioassays were performed on 10 beagle dogs that had been randomly assigned to two groups: one with five dogs orally treated with Bravecto\xC2\xAE (fluralaner) and other five as a control. About 30 females of Phlebotomus papatasi were allowed to directly feed from dogs at seven days before the administration of the treatment and Days 3, 17, 31, 45 and 73 post-treatment. Sand fly mortality after feeding was observed every 24 h for 5 days. The Kaplan-Meyer method, Henderson-Tilton formula and a negative binomial mixed model were used to respectively calculate: (i) mortality and its 95% confidence interval (CI); (ii) efficacy of the insecticide at killing sand flies in 24 h; and (iii) differences in the risk of sand fly death at 24 h after feeding."
"Control sand fly mortality 24 h after feeding was always \xE2\x89\xA4 20% and mortality in the fluralaner group ranged from 2% (95% CI: 0-4%) 7 days before treatment to 100% at 3 days post-treatment. Fluralaner efficacy was 100, 93, 94 and 75% at Days 3, 17, 31 and 45, respectively (P < 0.0001). The increase in the risk of sand fly death was 32.9 (95% CI: 4-263), 76 (95% CI: 8-705), 95.8 (95% CI: 9-1029) and 10.6 times (95% CI: 1.43-79) on Days 3, 17, 31 and 45, respectively CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of fluralaner, orally administered to dogs, against sand-flies was above 90% for 31 days. Fluralaner administered to dogs should be further evaluated as a control strategy in ZVL endemic areas."